Strong, bitter ale originally a pale ale for export to India. High alcohol and hop rate was to preserve beer during the long trip from England. Highly attenuated during the long trip.
Medium maltiness, medium body, dry, with some bready/biscuit flavor. Evident English hop flavor and aroma. Color from golden amber to light copper. No oak flavor. Med to Med-high carbonation.
Well modified English pale malt. English hops. Complex english yeast with fruity or sulfur/mineral profile. High sulfate but low carbonate water in many variations.
Freeminer Trafalgar IPA, Hampshire Pride of Romsey IPA, Samuel Smith's India Ale, Fuller's IPA, Shipyard Fuggles IPA, Goose Island IPA